The Fed's Great Unwind and Your Portfolio
After more than five years of unprecedented support for the economy, the Federal Reserve Board has begun to reduce its purchases of bonds. And though the Fed has said interest rates may stay low even after unemployment has fallen to 6.5%, higher rates increasingly seem to be a question of timing. Both of those actions can affect your portfolio.
Bond purchases: the tale of the taper
In the wake of the 2008 credit crisis, the Fed's purchases of Treasury and mortgage-backed bonds helped keep the bond market afloat, supplying demand for debt instruments when other buyers were hesitant. Fewer purchases by one of the bond markets' biggest customers in recent years could mean lower total overall demand for debt instruments. Since reduced demand for anything often leads to lower prices, that could hurt the value of your bond holdings.
On the other hand, retiring baby boomers will need to start generating more income from their portfolios, and they're unlikely to abandon income-producing investments completely. Those boomers could help replace some of the lost demand from the Fed. Also, the Fed's planned retreat from the bond-buying business has roiled overseas markets in recent months; when that kind of uncertainty hits, global investors often seek refuge in U.S. debt.
Rising interest rates
When interest rates begin to rise, investors will face falling bond prices, and longer-term bonds typically feel the impact the most. Bond buyers become reluctant to tie up their money for longer periods because they foresee higher yields in the future. The later a bond's maturity date, the greater the risk that its yield will eventually be superseded by that of newer bonds. As demand drops and yields increase to attract purchasers, prices fall.
There are various ways to manage that impact. You can hold individual bonds to maturity; you would suffer no loss of principal unless the borrower defaults. Bond investments also can be laddered. This involves buying a portfolio of bonds with varying maturities; for example, a five-bond portfolio might be structured so that one of the five matures each year for the next five years. As each bond matures, it can be reinvested in an instrument that carries a higher yield.
If you own a bond fund, you can check the average maturity of the fund's holdings, or the fund's average duration, which takes into account the value of interest payments and will generally be shorter than the average maturity. The longer a fund's duration, the more sensitive it may be to interest rate changes. Note: All investing involves risk, including the loss of principal, and your shares may be worth more or less than you paid for them when you sell. Before investing in a mutual fund, carefully consider its investment objective, risks, fees, and expenses, which are outlined in the prospectus available from the fund. Read it carefully before investing.
For those who've been diligent about saving, or who have kept a substantial portion of their investments in cash equivalents such as savings accounts or certificates of deposit, higher interest rates could be a boon, as rising rates would increase their potential income. The downside, of course, is that if higher rates are accompanied by inflation, such cash alternatives might not keep pace with rising prices.
Balancing competing risks
Bonds may be affected most directly by Fed action, but equities aren't necessarily immune to the impact of rate increases. Companies that didn't take advantage of low rates by issuing bonds may see their borrowing costs increase, and even companies that squirreled away cash could be hit when they return to the bond markets. Also, if interest rates become competitive with the return on stocks, that could reduce demand for equities. On the other hand, declining bond values could send many investors into equities that offer both growth potential and a healthy dividend.
Figuring out how future Fed decisions may affect your portfolio and how to anticipate and respond to them isn't an easy challenge. Don't hesitate to get expert help.
Spring Cleaning Your Debt
It's springtime--time for you to take stock of your surroundings and get rid of the dirt and clutter that you've accumulated during this past year.
In addition to typical spring cleaning tasks, you may want to take this time to focus on your finances. In particular, now may be as good a time as ever to evaluate your debt situation and try to reduce and/or eliminate any debt obligations you may have. The following are some tips to get you started.
Determine whether it makes sense to refinance
If you currently have consumer loans, such as a mortgage or an auto loan, take a look at your interest rates. If you find that you are paying higher-than-average interest rates, you may want to consider refinancing. Refinancing to a lower interest rate can result in lower monthly payments on a loan and potentially less interest paid over the loan's term.
Keep in mind that refinancing often involves its own costs (e.g., points and closing costs for mortgage loans), and you should factor them into your calculations of how much refinancing might save you.
Consider loan consolidation
Loan consolidation involves rolling small individual loans into one larger loan, allowing you to make only one monthly payment instead of many.
Consolidating your loans into one single loan has several advantages, including making it easier to focus on paying down your debt. In addition, you may be able to get a lower interest rate or extend the loan term on a consolidated loan. Keep in mind, however, that if you do extend the repayment term on a consolidated loan, it could take you longer to get out of debt and ultimately you may end up paying more in interest charges over the life of the loan.
Look into taking out a home equity loan
If you own a home and have enough equity, you may be able to use a home equity loan to pay off your debt. The interest on home equity loans is often lower compared to other types of loans (e.g., credit cards) and is usually tax deductible.
Home equity loans can be an effective way to pay off debt. However, there are some disadvantages to consider. If you end up having an available line of credit with a home equity loan, you'll need to be careful not to incur any new debt. In addition, when you take out a home equity loan, your home is potentially at risk since it serves as collateral for the loan.
Evaluate whether you should invest your money or pay off your debt
Another effective way to reduce your debt load is to take cash that you normally would put toward certain investment vehicles and use it to pay down your debt. In order to determine whether this is a good option, you'll have to compare the current and anticipated rate of return on your investments with interest you would pay on your debt. In general, if you would earn less on your investments than you would pay in interest on your debts, using your extra cash to pay off your debt may be the smarter choice.
For example, assume that you have $1,000 in a savings account that earns an annual rate of return of 3%. Meanwhile, you have a credit card balance of $1,000 that incurs annual interest at a rate of 19%. Over the course of a year, your savings account earns $30 interest while your credit card costs you $190 in interest. In this case, it might be best to use your extra cash to pay down your high-interest credit card debt.
Come up with a payment strategy to eliminate credit card debt
If you have a significant amount of credit card debt, you'll need to come up with a payment strategy in order to help eliminate it. Some options include:
- Making lump-sum payments using available funds such as an inheritance or employment bonus
- Prioritizing repayments toward cards with the highest interest rates
- Utilizing balance transfers
Whenever possible, make additional payments
Making payments in addition to your regular loan payments or the minimum payment due can reduce the length of the loan and the total interest paid over the life of a loan. Additional payments can be made periodically and at a time of your choosing (e.g., monthly, quarterly, or annually).
Making more than the required minimum payment is especially important when it comes to credit card debt. If you only make the minimum payment on a credit card, you'll continue to carry the bulk of your balance forward for many years without actually reducing your overall balance.
College Savings Plan
Prepaid Tuition Plan
What is it?
A college savings plan is an individual investment account. You contribute money and direct your contributions to one or more of the plan's investment options, which typically range from conservative to aggressive in their degree of risk. Plans are offered by states.
A prepaid tuition plan is a pooled account. You contribute money and in exchange you receive a certain number of tuition credits, which can be redeemed in the future. Plans can be offered by either states (more common) or colleges.
Can nonresidents open an account?
Yes, college savings plans are open to residents of any state. And you can open an account any time of year.
No, state-sponsored plans are only open to state residents. However, college-sponsored plans are open to anyone. Generally, you can open an account only during open enrollment, which is once or twice per year.
Does the plan guarantee an investment return?
No, college savings plans offer a menu of investment options, and your account gains or loses value according to the investment performance of the options you've chosen. You could lose money investing in this type of plan.
Yes, prepaid tuition plans guarantee to cover a certain amount of tuition in the future based on the contribution you make today. However, some plans have been unable to meet their initial guarantees, so fully research any plan guarantee before investing money.
What education expenses does the plan cover?
Funds in a college savings plan can be used for undergraduate and graduate tuition, fees, room and board, books, and equipment at any accredited college in the United States or abroad.
Tuition credits in a state prepaid plan generally can be used only for undergraduate tuition and fees at in-state universities; tuition credits in a college prepaid plan can be used for undergraduate tuition and fees at member colleges. If the beneficiary attends a nonmember college, there are typically limits on how much the plan will cover.
When can withdrawals be made?
There is generally no time limit.
Tuition credits generally must be used by the time the beneficiary reaches age 30.
What fees and expenses are charged?
College savings plans typically charge an investment fee for each investment option, so be sure to take a close look at your investment choices. Some plans may also charge an initial new account fee, a flat annual maintenance fee, and a withdrawal fee if you decide to switch plans.
Prepaid tuition plans typically charge a flat enrollment fee, and may also charge more miscellaneous fees than college savings plans, such as fees for returned checks, beneficiary changes, or changes to the payment schedule.